Sleep is divided into two forms – non-REM and REM.


 Non-REM sleep is further subdivided into 4 stages, each with its own properties. During non-REM sleep neuronal activity is low, metabolic rate and brain temperature are at their lowest, heart rate decreases, blood pressure lowers, and muscle tone and reflexes are intact. Contrast this with REM (rapid eye movement) sleep where brain activity is similar to that of the awake brain. For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as paradoxical sleep. In REM sleep brain temperature and metabolic rate rise and there is complete loss of muscle tone with the exception of the diaphragm (so you can breathe), the eye muscles, and some muscles within the inner ear.

A recent study of about 1,500 Americans found that 90% of adults use an electronic device within 1 hour of bedtime at least a few times per week. Devices may be an important contributor to insomnia because of the short-wavelength-enriched light that is emitted from them. Exposure to light in the evening and the early part of the night, even at low intensity, has several sleep-disturbing effects. First is suppresses melatonin, delaying the onset of sleep. It shifts the circadian clock to a later time making it harder to fall asleep at a regular hour. Finally, it increases alertness and arousal.

 

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